Metaphor in literature

Prior to the publication of Metaphors We Live By by Lakoff and Johnson metaphors were mostly seen as ornamental units that make literature more appealing. Indeed, the work of these two scholars significantly changed the perception of metaphors and more strenuous effort was made in order to verify if metaphors might have some more applications, or any unique underlying cognitive processes. As we known now, metaphors are not mere rhetorical figures of speech which embellish prose and poetry, but are strongly embedded in the human perception of the world and our ways of thinking. Therefore, they are indispensable to portraying thoughts in language which makes them omnipresent not only in literature, but also in everyday speech. Moreover, as studies have shown certain types of discourses are more susceptible to metaphorical speech and the increased number of metaphorical phrases exploited in a text serves additional functions, such as explanation in education, or distractive and misleading statements in politics. For years numerous scholars devoted large volumes to the study of the role of metaphors in literature and although their views have recently been modified, they have to be portrayed here so as to outline the complete history of the study of the very interesting phenomena of the use of metaphors.